Joshua Uzoigwe (July 1, 1946 – October 15, 2005) was a Nigerian composer and ethnomusicologist. A member of the Igbo ethnic group, many of his works draw on the traditional music of that people.
Uzoigwe was born in Umuahia, Abia State (formerly Imo State), Nigeria. He began his education at the village primary school in Umuagu. Most of his early life was spent with his older brother, Sunday Uzoigwe, who was then employed at the University of Ibadan. For his secondary education, Joshua attended King's College, Lagos before going on to International School Ibadan to study for his Advanced Level Certificate.
From 1970 to 1973, he was at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, where he began his studies in music. He completed his undergraduate degree (1973–77) at the Guildhall College of Music, London, and from 1977 to 1981 he attended Queen's University Belfast, attaining both an M.A. and a Ph.D. in ethnomusicology.
Uzoigwe lectured in Music at three universities in Nigeria, starting from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife, then University of Nigeria Nsukka and finally University of Uyo in Akwa Ibom State.